PDH Engineer     PE PDH
PDH Online

Increasing the Efficient Use of Highway Capacity


Quiz Questions

1.In the United States, the primary use of shoulders has been as a safety refuge area. The limited shoulder use as a travel lane has been primarily reserved for special users of the roadway system, most often transit vehicles.
True
False
2. In Europe, part-time shoulder use is a congestion management strategy typically deployed in conjunction with complementary traffic management strategies – such as variable speed limits (speed harmonization) and/or ramp metering – to address capacity bottlenecks on the freeway network.
True
False
3.A typical installation in Europe incorporates a number of unique roadway features, which can include lightweight gantries, Lane control signals, Dynamic speed limit signals, Dynamic message signs, Automated enforcement technology, Closed-circuit television cameras, Enhanced lighting, Roadway sensors, Emergency roadside telephones, Advanced incident detection, Intensified incident management & Emergency refuge areas or pull-outs beyond the shoulder.
True
False
4.The transportation plan (also known as the long-range transportation plan, metropolitan transportation plan, regional transportation plan, etc.) is a statement of the way in which the region plans to invest in the transportation system. This 20-year document, which must be updated on a periodic basis (typically every 5 years, but every 3 years for nonattainment and maintenance areas), sets the stage for transportation investment in the region by mapping general strategies for improving the safe and efficient movement of people and goods throughout the area. Operational strategies, which might include temporary use of shoulders during peak periods or measures such as managed lanes, can be part of this plan.
True
False
5.The elements of the metropolitan transportation planning process include public involvement, planning factors, management systems input; major investment studies (MIS), the air quality conformity process, and the financial plan.
True
False
6.The flowchart representing the development of a transportation plan is represented in ______________.
Figure 1
Figure 2
7. The term __________________________ refers to an array of lane management strategies. These lanes are managed through the application of pricing, vehicle eligibility, or access control to expedite the flow in that lane.
Merged Lanes
Managed Lanes
8. The left lane, or plus lane, is opened for travel use when traffic volumes reach levels that indicate congestion is growing. As in Germany, temporary use of the left lane is allowed only when speed harmonization is in effect.
True
False
9.The junction control schematic is represented in _____________________.
Figure 8
Figure 9
10.Bus on shoulders (BOS) programs, generally considered special-use applications of dedicated shoulder lanes, are most often implemented as a means of increasing the reliability of transit service in congested corridors in order to encourage increased use by the public.
True
False
11. In dedicated shoulder-lane operations, either general purpose or HOV-specific capacity has been added through the permanent conversion of shoulders. Most HOV applications use the interior lane for HOV operations, while the exterior shoulder is used for general purpose traffic so as to maintain the same number of general purpose lanes that existed prior to implementation.
True
False
12. In addition to HOV and general purpose capacity, additional existing uses of shoulders include auxiliary lanes, either between interchanges or in merge zones (particularly those that impede upstream traffic on the mainline); lane balancing requirements through bottlenecks; and creation of uniform lane widths.
True
False
13.It is always desired to have a minimum 12-ft lane width for all freeway travel lanes. A reduction in this lane width reduces the overall capacity and may impact smooth operations. However, with regard to temporary shoulder use, narrower lane widths can be acceptable due to the limited use and operating conditions during their use.
True
False
14.Perhaps the most critical concern regarding the use of shoulders as travel lanes is the inability for vehicles to use the shoulder in the event of an emergency. This condition can be minimized by installing emergency refuge areas (ERAs) periodically along the facility. Along the M42 in England, emergency refuge areas are located approximately every 500 m and include emergency roadside telephones.
True
False
15. For those roadways that have rumble strips on the shoulder, designers either move the rumble strips so that the buses straddle the strips, or install rumble stripes on the pavement marking. In both cases, the transit vehicles avoid driving on the affected pavement.
True
False