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How to Preserve Historic Buildings 18 HSW LU Hours


Quiz Questions

1.Regardless of the treatment, code requirements will need to be taken into consideration. But if hastily or poorly designed, a series of code-required actions may jeopardize a building’s materials as well as its historic character. Thus, if a building needs to be seismically upgraded, modifications to the historic appearance should be minimal. Abatement of lead paint and asbestos within historic buildings requires particular care if important historic finishes are not to be adversely affected.

Finally, alterations and new construction needed to meet accessibility requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 should be designed to minimize material loss and visual change to a historic building.
True
False
2. Identifying, retaining, and preserving masonry features that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building such as walls, brackets, railings, cornices, window architraves, door pediments, steps, and columns; and details such as tooling and bonding patterns, coatings, and color.
Recommended
Not recommended
3.The followings are:

  • Altering masonry features which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished.
  • Replacing historic masonry features instead of repairing or replacing only the deteriorated masonry.
  • Applying paint or other coatings such as stucco to masonry that has been historically unpainted or uncoated.
  • Removing paint from historically painted masonry.
  • Changing the type of paint or coating or its color.
Recommended
Not recommended
4.Cleaning masonry surfaces with the gentlest method possible, such as low pressure water and detergents, using natural bristle brushes.
Recommended
Not recommended
5.Sandblasting brick or stone surfaces using dry or wet grit or other abrasives.

Using a cleaning method that involves water or liquid chemical solutions when there is any possibility of freezing temperatures.

Cleaning with chemical products that will damage masonry, such as using acid on limestone or marble, or leaving chemicals on masonry surfaces.

Applying high pressure water cleaning methods that will damage historic masonry and the mortar joints.

Removing paint that is firmly adhering to, and thus protecting, masonry surfaces.

Recommended
Not recommended
6.Repairing masonry walls and other masonry features by repointing the mortar joints where there is evidence of deterioration such as disintegrating mortar, cracks in mortar joints, loose bricks, damp walls, or damaged plasterwork.

Removing deteriorated mortar by carefully hand-raking the joints to avoid damaging the masonry.

Duplicating old mortar in strength, composition, color, and texture.

Recommended
Not recommended
7.Repairing stucco by removing the damaged material and patching with new stucco that duplicates the old in strength, composition, color, and texture.

Using mud plaster as a surface coating over unfired, unstabilized adobe because the mud plaster will bond to the adobe.

Recommended
Not recommended
8.Removing sound stucco; or repairing with new stucco that is stronger than the historic material or does not convey the same visual appearance.

Applying cement stucco to unfired, unstabilized adobe.

Because the cement stucco will not bond properly, moisture can become entrapped between materials, resulting in accelerated deterioration of the adobe.

Patching concrete without removing the source of deterioration.

Recommended
Not recommended
9.Identifying, retaining, and preserving wood features that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building such as siding, cornices, brackets, window architraves, and doorway pediments; and their paints, finishes, and colors.
Recommended
Not recommended
10.Altering wood features which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished.

Replacing historic wood features instead of repairing or replacing only the deteriorated wood.

Changing the type of paint or finish and its color.

Failing to stabilize deteriorated or damaged wood until additional work is undertaken, thus allowing further damage to occur to the historic building.

Recommended
Not recommended
11.Removing non-deteriorated mortar from sound joints, then repointing the entire building to achieve a uniform appearance.

Using electric saws and hammers rather than hand tools to remove deteriorated mortar from joints prior to repointing.

Repointing with mortar of high portland cement content (unless it is the content of the historic mortar). This can often create a bond that is stronger than the historic material and can cause damage as a result of the differing coefficient of expansion and the differing porosity of the material and the mortar.

Repointing with a synthetic caulking compound.

Using a "scrub" coating technique to repoint instead of traditional repointing methods.

Recommended
Not recommended
12. Identifying, retaining, and preserving roofs—and their functional and decorative features—that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building. This includes the roof’s shape, such as hipped, gambrel, and mansard; decorative features such as cupolas, cresting, chimneys, and weathervanes; and roofing material such as slate, wood.
Recommended
Not recommended
13.Altering the roof and roofing materials which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished.

Replacing historic roofing material instead of repairing or replacing only the deteriorated material.

Changing the type or color of roofing materials.

Failing to stabilize a deteriorated or damaged roof until additional work is undertaken, thus allowing further damage to occur to the historic building.

Recommended
Not recommended
14.Repairing the structural system by augmenting or upgrading individual parts or features using recognized preservation methods. For example, weakened structural members such as floor framing can be paired with a new member, braced, or otherwise supplemented and reinforced.
Recommended
Not recommended
15.Upgrading the building structurally in a manner that diminishes the historic character of the exterior, such as installing strapping channels or removing a decorative cornice; or damages interior features or spaces.

Replacing a structural member or other feature of the structural system when it could be augmented and retained.

Recommended
Not recommended
16.Identifying, retaining, and preserving visible features of early mechanical systems that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building, such as radiators, vents, fans, grilles, plumbing fixtures, switch plates, and lights.

Stabilizing deteriorated or damaged mechanical systems as a preliminary measure, when necessary, prior to undertaking appropriate preservation work.

Protecting and maintaining mechanical, plumbing, and electrical systems and their features through cyclical cleaning and other appropriate measures.

Preventing accelerated deterioration of mechanical systems by providing adequate ventilation of attics, crawlspaces, and cellars so that moisture problems are avoided.

Improving the energy efficiency of existing mechanical systems to help reduce the need for elaborate new equipment.

Recommended
Not recommended
17.Removing or altering visible features of mechanical systems that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished.

Failing to stabilize a deteriorated or damaged mechanical system until additional work is undertaken, thus allowing further damage to occur to the historic building.

Failing to provide adequate protection of materials on a cyclical basis so that deterioration of mechanical systems and their visible features results.

Enclosing mechanical systems in areas that are not adequately ventilated so that deterioration of the systems results.

Installing unnecessary climate control systems which can add excessive moisture to the building. This additional moisture can either condense inside, damaging interior surfaces, or pass through interior walls to the exterior, potentially damaging adjacent materials as it migrates.

Replacing a mechanical system or its functional parts when it could be upgraded and retained.

Installing a visible replacement feature that does not convey the same visual appearance.

Recommended
Not recommended
18.Removing or radically changing architectural metal features which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the character is diminished.

Removing a major portion of the historic architectural metal from a facade instead of repairing or replacing only the deteriorated metal, then reconstructing the facade with new material in order to create a uniform, or "improved" appearance.

Radically changing the type of finish or its historic color or accent scheme.

Failing to identify, evaluate, and treat the causes of corrosion, such as moisture from leaking roofs or gutters.

Placing incompatible metals together without providing a reliable separation material.

Such incompatibility can result in galvanic corrosion of the less noble metal, e.g., copper will corrode cast iron, steel, tin, and aluminum.

Exposing metals which were intended to be protected from the environment.

Applying paint or other coatings to metals such as copper, bronze, or stainless steel that were meant to be exposed.

Using cleaning methods which alter or damage the historic color, texture, and finish of the metal; or cleaning when it is inappropriate for the metal.

Recommended
Not recommended
19.Some historic building materials (insulation, lead paint, etc.) contain toxic substances that are potentially hazardous to building occupants.

Following careful investigation and analysis, some form of abatement may be required.

All workers involved in the encapsulation, repair, or removal of known toxic materials should be adequately trained and should wear proper personal protective gear. Finally, preventive and routine maintenance for historic structures known to contain such materials should also be developed to include proper warnings and precautions.

Recommended
Not recommended
20.Identifying, retaining, and preserving a floor plan or interior spaces that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building. This includes the size, configuration, proportion, and relationship of rooms and corridors; the relationship of features to spaces; and the spaces themselves such as lobbies, reception halls, entrance halls, double parlors, theaters, auditoriums, and important industrial or commercial spaces.
Recommended
Not recommended