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Electric Power System Transformations

Quiz Questions

1. In the course of their development, electric power systems (EPSs) ___________________ their structure and properties under the influence of objective factors. These include for example, the broader use of innovative technologies for power generation, transmission, storage, distribution and consumption.
Have continuously changed
Have never changed
2. Figure 1 shows a ________ structure of future electric power systems
9 levels
2 level
3 levels
3. Technical effects in the EPS architecture transformations ________ to include capacity, structure, frequency, and operational and environmental effects.
Are assumed
Are not assumed

Figure 2 gives an example of a mega project of West European Electric Power Interconnection development on the basis of ______ in the North Sea and solar power plants in the Sahara Desert.

Wind turbines
Fossil fuel

Figure 3 is the:

Planned Super-high voltage Global Energy interconnection
Proposed Global oil pipeline
6. Micro systems are traditionally designed to run with an alternating current. Many electrical power devices of consumers currently operate on a direct current, and for connection to EPSs, reversible converters are used. For this reason, micro-systems are mainly developed on the direct current or as hybrid AC/DC micro-systems.

The following measures could enhance the Resiliency/Survivability of EPS

  1. Elaboration of reliability standards for submission of the reliability requirements when planning the EPS development and condition control; it is necessary to note the necessity of elaborating special reliability standards for the cases of natural disasters with the identification of specific requirements for the power supply reliability of major consumers in those conditions.
  2. Creation of a large-scale efficient protection system and emergency control system that is primarily important for preventing the cascade propagation of an emergency.
  3. Development of efficient procedures for EPS recovery after large disturbances. It is obvious that those procedures shall be different for the cases of system recovery after a cascade emergency and after natural disasters.
  4. Organization of regular training for dispatchers. The contents of that training shall be different for the cases of a cascade emergency and for natural disasters.
  5. Generalization of the nature and mechanisms of occurrence and development of large emergencies. Each system cascade emergency is unique, but their analysis and generalization allow for the identification of the key factors whose elimination would reduce the probability of such emergencies and mitigate their probable consequences. Considering the basic importance of such generalizations, let us consider this aspect of the problem in greater detail.
8. In figure 7 ________ a Restoration period after the Final state
You need
You do not need
9. When considering the structure of future control systems for EPS conditions, the majority of investigators _______ that those systems shall have a hierarchical structure.
do not agree
10. An example of perspective approaches may be an intelligent system proposed in [63]. The system is based on multi-agent technologies and algorithms of computer-aided learning for early prevention of critical voltage instabilities. Large-scale use of grid-related control means (energy storage systems, FACTS devices, etc.) and potentials of active consumers is also typical of such approaches.