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Electric Power Grid Transition and Modernization

Quiz Questions

1.In traditional electric power grids, stations consisted primarily of steam stations that used _________________ that turned high inertia turbines to produce electricity.
Fossil fuels and hydro turbines
Nuclear reactors and hydro turbines

Over the last hundred years, there have been considerable technological advances for the bulk power grid. The power grid has been continually updated with new technologies. Which one of the followings have contributed to these advances:

  1. increased efficient and environmentally friendly generating sources
  2. higher voltage equipment
  3. power electronics in the form of HV direct current (HVdc) and flexible alternating current transmission systems (FACTS)
  4. advancements in computerized monitoring, protection, control, and grid management techniques for planning, real-time operations, and maintenance
  5. methods of demand response and energy-efficient load management.
a & b
All of the above
3. HVdc stands for:
High voltage direct current
Heating ventilation duct center

FACTS stand for:

It is a fact (not fiction) and truth
Flexible Alternating current transmission systems

Figure 1. Shows:

Grid in rural areas compared to the urban areas
Transition from traditional to New electrical Grid two-way power flow
6. The reliability and safety of serving electrical power loads may potentially be negatively affected if :
the transmission and distribution (T&D) grid is not available or capable of providing backup for renewable power intermittencies.
the cost of electricity constantly goes up.

While the present grid is very reliable, users will demand even more reliability from electric power delivery in the future, including resilience during major weather or security events. The integration of

Nuclear power plants with the current grid cans assure more reliance to the customers.
DERs and distributed grids can increase efficiencies in the use of the existing grid as well as become part of the overall development strategy to balance supply and demand uncertainties and risks with a variety of different resources, assuring resilient, flexible, and safe power delivery to consumers.

This is a time of rapid change for the electric utility industry. Advances in technology will meet the challenges posed by the grid of the future. Which one of the following is/are the drivers for grid modernization?

  1. improvements in renewable generation resources and storage as well as electrical transportation
  2. improvements in monitoring, protection, and control and the accompanying software tools
  3. bringing electronic technologies and devices (particularly solid-state devices) to the grid, transforming the transitional passive, electrical, and electromechanical grid to be an active, electronic, electrical, and electromechanical grid with dynamic control.
a, b
a, b, and c
9.Microgrids have existed for years on university campuses, military bases, and large industrial sites and at various critical infrastructure locations where combinations of the economics of Distributed Generation (DG) and demand response, the need for very high reliability, and research objectives all led to their development. Today, the microgrid concept is seen as an alternative to enhance resiliency, facilitate the DER integration, and provide efficient energy supply to isolated or remote areas.
10. The keys to a smarter grid are:
an educated workforce
developing and applying standards
sharing global best practices
All of the above