1. High-performance buildings are designed and built to minimize resource consumption, to reduce life cycle costs, and to maximize health and environmental performance across a wide range of measures from indoor air quality to habitat protection. For example, high-performance buildings can:
– Achieve energy savings in excess of 50% compared with conventional buildings
– Achieve higher employee productivity and longer job retention – Reduce water consumption, maintenance and repair costs, capital costs in many cases, and overall environmental impacts. True False 2. The first steps for a sustainable and high-performance building design include:
– Creating a vision for the project and setting design performance goals.
– Forming a strong, all-inclusive project team. – Outlining important first steps to take in achieving a sustainable design. – Realizing sustainable design within the LANL established design process. True False 3. If whole-building and passive-solar design strategies are not properly incorporated into the building design, they can adversely affect the building’s IEQ. For example,
– A daylighting system is ineffective if inadequate light levels are provided to meet the occupants’ needs or if glare is a problem on the work surfaces.
– An improperly designed natural ventilation cooling system could introduce outdoor contaminants to the indoor space or pose a security risk. True False 4. A successful building begins with a vision outlining the proposed building function and anticipated long-term uses. A vision for sustainability must also be developed and incorporated into the Functional and Operational Requirement (F&OR) and request for proposal (RFP) documents. True False 5. The following is a sample questions to ask before developing an FO & R ( functional and operational requirements) document.
Why is the building needed?
– What are the performance goals for the building?
– What are the first-cost or life-cycle cost issues? – What process will be used to design and construct the building? Is a design/build or a design/bid/build process planned? – Can the established design and construction process successfully meet the project goals? If not, what should be changed and how should it be changed? – How will the project team verify that all design decisions will help meet the design goals? What design tools will be used (e.g., computer simulation tools for energy and daylighting)? – How will the project team ensure that the building performs as it was designed (e.g., building commissioning, operation, and maintenance)? – What safety and security issues must be considered? True False 6. Daylighting uses sunlight to offset electrical lighting loads. Daylighting design provides the same or better quality light than electrical light equivalents with no glare or other distracting qualities. True False 7. Which one of the following is important in selection of the Geology/soils site. Site the long axis of a building or a parking lot with the natural topography to minimize site disturbance and excavation. Minimize excavation. Protect and plant groundcover that prevents soil loss to wind and storm water erosion. Minimize disturbance to groundcover. Locate construction vehicle parking and materials storage in proposed development areas such as future parking lots. Avoid locations designated as future landscaped or natural areas. Avoid soil compression. All of the above. 8. The first step in passive cooling is to minimize the cooling load by providing effective external window shading and not oversizing the windows. Glazing selection is also important in reducing the solar loads on the building. In addition, turn off or dim electric lighting systems to take full advantage of the daylighting entering the building while at the same time reducing cooling loads. True False 9. Standard HID lamps do not work well with daylight or occupancy controls because of the long starting and restrike times. Consider HID lighting in high bay areas with no daylight that need to be continuously illuminated, and for exterior applications. Conference rooms Library 10. Accent lighting highlights aesthetic features in the space or give the space a certain desired “feel.” Accent lighting system design guidelines are: For the amount of useful light it provides, accent lighting often consumes more power than ambient or task lighting systems. Limit the amount of accent lighting. Ensure that the accent lighting is on only when there are people in the space. Use occupancy sensors to control accent lighting. Select the lowest wattage fixtures possible to achieve the desired effect for all accent lighting. Select low-energy fixtures. Reduce the ambient lighting levels near accent lighting to improve contrast. Balance accent and ambient lighting levels. True False 11. Lighting controls match the light output to the occupancy schedule and illumination requirements. The controls minimize the actual energy consumption without compromising the quality of lighting in the space. There are two types of controls:
are appropriate for spaces that have lamps with long starting and restrike times, such as high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. They may also be appropriate for spaces that require occupant light control, such as equipment rooms and laser laboratories; however, manual controls are usually not recommended. Manual controls are more appropriate for spaces where daylighting is the primary lighting source and spaces having differing occupancy schedules, such as offices, break rooms, and restrooms. Automatic controls True False 12. On-off or step-function lighting controls are best suited for spaces where occupants are in the space for a short period or when sudden shifts in lighting levels will not disturb the occupants. Circulation areas, restrooms, interior laboratories, and service rooms are good candidates for on-off or step-function lighting controls. These lighting control functions can be either manual or automatic. True False 13. Ceiling tiles are manufactured from a variety of different materials, including mineral fibers (mineral wool and cellulose fiber), fiberglass, gypsum, and polystyrene. Light reflectance is also an important part of a ceiling. The light reflectance (LR) characteristic of ceiling tiles enhances the efficiency of indirect lighting, which can reduce light requirements and energy costs. Highly reflective ceiling tiles have an LR of 0.85 or greater and should be specified with indirect, high-efficiency lighting, and can be incorporated as part of a daylighting strategy. True False 14. All steel manufactured in the United States contains recycled content. Recycled content varies based on the type of furnace used for processing. Steel from a Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) contains approximately 30 percent recycled content on average. Steel from an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) contains nearly 100 percent recycled content. Structural shapes (such as I-beams) are typically manufactured using the EAF, while historically, other steel products such as plates, sheets, and tubing components have been manufactured using the BOF.
No additional costs are associated with recycled-content steel products due to the inherent recycling in all U.S. steel manufacturing processes. Although some products manufactured using foreign steel may actually be less expensive, the recycled content in foreign steel may be unknown. Foreign steel products are not recommended due to the environmental cost associated with energy and natural resources expended for transportation.
True False 15. Insulation is a critical component of an energy-efficient building. Energy (or thermal) performance associated with insulation is based on the thickness needed to achieve a specified or desired thermal resistance. In addition to the energy (or thermal) characteristics of insulation, recycled content and toxicity (to both human health and the environment) of insulation must be considered. True False 16. Brick provides thermal mass that adds to energy efficiency by slowing heat transfer through the wall. Brickis also very durable, requiring essentially no maintenance because it never needs to be painted and never rots, fades, warps, burns, dents, tears, or becomes brittle. True False 17. In roof design, Dark, non-reflective roofing surfaces create heat island effects by absorbing energy from the sun and radiating it as heat. This "black body" effect causes ambient temperatures to rise, which increases cooling requirements in the summer, requires larger HVAC equipment, and increases building energy consumption. A roof system with light colors can reflect heat instead of absorbing it, reducing HVAC equipment and energy use. True False 18. Windows are a critical component for an energy efficient building. Not only do windows affect the thermal performance of a building (in the same manner as insulation), they provide natural daylight, reducing the electric lighting requirements of a building. True False 19. Getting from design to a completed project happens in two stages: development of construction documents and actual construction.
To successfully implement a sustainable design, the construction documents must accurately convey the specifics that determine building performance, and they have to set up systems for informing and training contractors and subcontractors about unfamiliar materials and methods.
The task during construction is also two-fold:
construct the building so it will perform as intended and protect the environment as much as possible throughout the process. True False 20. Construction documents must accurately document the design, including all features and details needed for the building’s sustainable goals. They also must set up mechanisms to ensure that everyone who will participate in implementing the design is apprised of the environmental goals and knowledgeable about the materials and techniques that will be used to meet those goals. True False